Digital Payment Ecosystems

What links exist in a country’s digital payments chain, and how they connect to each other, can enhance or undermine the usefulness of the technology in the daily lives of average people.

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UN Principles for Responsible Digital Payments: Building Trust, Mitigating Risks & Driving Inclusive Economies

This Better Than Cash Alliance report details principles for building responsible digital payment systems. An update to BTCA’s 2016 publication, the report emphasizes the importance of consumer trust driven by reliability, interoperability between services, and conscious efforts to include marginalized communities, particularly women.

Monitoring Digital Financial Payments of Cash Transfers in the Philippines

Digital Technology to Scale Up COVID-19 Social Assistance: What Have We Learned?

Delivering on the potential of digitized G2P: Driving women’s financial inclusion and empowerment through Indonesia’s Program Keluarga Harapan (PKH)

Is COVID-19 Pakistan’s Black Swan Event for Digital Payments?

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Africa’s Journey Towards an Integrated Digital Payments Landscape and How the EU Can Support It

  • Ennatu Domingo, Chloe Teevan

This policy brief outlines why cross-border interoperability of payment platforms across Africa is important, where the opportunities and challenges lie, and how international partners such as the EU can support African efforts. It traces some of the solutions that are being applied both at the continental and at the regional levels, explores some of the lessons to be learned from these different cases, and proposes initial policy recommendations for the...

A Digital Stack for Transforming Service Delivery: ID, Payments, and Data Sharing

  • World Bank Group

Digital technologies are changing how the world interacts and transacts. From opening bank accounts to parents enrolling their children in school and social safety net programs verifying a new beneficiary, to businesses applying for licenses, day-to-day activities are becoming increasingly automated and integrated. Apart from reducing costs and spurring innovation, this creates opportunities to make better services available to more people, such as by removing the need to physically go...

Can Digital G2P Transfers Drive Financial Inclusion and Digital Payments? Evidence from India

  • Alan Gelb, Anit Mukherjee, Brian Webster

Does channeling government-to-person (G2P) payments through bank accounts encourage financial inclusion and use? This paper explores the factors that have driven the adoption of digital payments in India by beneficiaries of PMGKY, the large-scale COVID-19 relief program launched in May 2020. India’s 2013 move to pay social benefits through direct transfers into bank accounts significantly increased account ownership, but uptake of digital payments has been slower, although it has accelerated...

Beyond India’s Lockdown: PMGKY Benefits During the COVID-19 Crisis and the State of Digital Payments

  • Alan Gelb, Anurodh Giri, Anit Mukherjee, Ritesh Rautela, Mitul Thapliyal, and Brian Webster

India imposed a lock-down in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020 and began a gradual re-opening in June. A telephonic survey in April examined the early effectiveness of information and the massive PMGKY social protection program (Policy Paper 217). This paper analyzes a second-round survey, conducted six months later. Logistical and information constraints had relaxed, and incomes and jobs had begun to stabilize for some. There were not...

National Digital Payments Roadmap – Bangladesh 2022-2025

  • Keyzom Ngodup Massally, Nabila Khurshed, Camilo Tellez-Merchan, Azizur Rahman, Vikas Singh, Anir Chowdhury, Dewan Md. Humayun Kabir

Investment in the digital infrastructure of the country has been a priority for the Government of Bangladesh in the past decade, ever since the vision for Digital Bangladesh was launched. Digital payments are critical to the government’s vision and ensuring these are scaled responsibly is now critical. The National Digital Payments Roadmap (‘the Roadmap’) provides a high-level plan to expand the adoption of responsible digital payments in a way that...

Digitalization: A Safe Path to a More Inclusive Recovery in Indonesia?

  • International Monetary Fund, Asia and Pacific Department

There are two key longstanding structural constraints to inclusive growth in Indonesia—low financial inclusion and limited access to finance—resulting in a large financing gap. Indonesia’s digitalization— growing rapidly in the e-commerce and financial services sector, the latter facilitated by fintech—is helping close this gap. The COVID-19 pandemic will likely serve to further accelerate this digital transformation: adoption of e-commerce and digital payments has increased amidst lockdowns and social distancing. Digitalization...


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