Government-to-person (G2P) payments have never been more important, as governments worldwide seek for ways to respond to the economic and social consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Cash transfers will be critical to supporting recovery, rebuilding livelihoods, and preparing for future challenges.  The challenge of making these massive payouts to the poor and informal sector workers is highlighting the differences between the G2P payment ecosystems across countries. This blog post explores the challenges and opportunities for cash transfer programs to produce long-term benefits including financial inclusion and economic empowerment of women.